Renal Disease

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Renal Disease

Renal Calculi (Renal Stone)

What is kidney or renal stone and its causes [renal calculi]?

Kidney stone or a renal calculus is a hard, crystalline material formed within the kidney or urinary tract and it often causes severe pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin.

The condition which develops in the human body due to kidney stone is termed as nephrolithiasis and stones at any location in the urinary tract are known as urolithiasis.
Kidney stones develop when there is decrease in urine volume, due to dehydration, reduced intake of fluid, strenuous exercises or excess stone-forming substances in the urine.

The most common type of kidney stone contains calcium in combination with either oxalate or phosphate i.e. Calcium oxalate stone or Calcium phosphate stone. Another type of stone is called uric acid or amino acid cystine stone where the patients might have elevated amount of uric acid level in their blood. Few persons might be having this problem because of tendency of developing this sort of specific kinds of stones or someone is having the genetic predisposition of stone formation.

Obstruction to the flow of urine can also lead to stone formation. In this regard, climate may be a risk factor for kidney stone development, since residents of hot and dry areas are more likely to become dehydrated and susceptible to stone formation. Kidney stones can also result from infection in the urinary tract. .

Some different pathological condition can develop the renal calcification like Gout, hypercalciuria (high calcium in urine), hyper-parathyroidism, cystinuria, diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure.

Symptoms of kidney stone:

In most of the cases of kidney stone patient will be symptom free until stone moves around within your kidney or passes into ureter.At that point of time you may feel these symptoms:

• Patient may feel sharp pain in the sides and back pain also can radiate to lower abdomen, groin and genitals.
• Pain fluctuates in intensity.
• Throbbing pain on urination.
• As pain increases in severity person might feel nausea and vomiting.
• Urine may be red or brown in color.
• There will be constant ineffectual urge to urinate as urine comes in small quantity.
• Frequency of urination may be more than normal.
• If infection proceeds person may feel chill and fever.

Complication of kidney stone:

Sometimes kidney stone may lead to obstruction and infection which can be serious and need attention.
If there is history of multiple urologic procedures for kidney stones or grater size of kidney stone it might lead to kidney failure though it is very rare.

Dos and don’ts in kidney stone:

• Drink sufficient amount of water at least 2-3 liters even in winters to flush out the toxins and decrease load on kidneys.
• Take kidney friendly diet such as leaching of vegetables is good cooking option for this Keep the chopped vegetables in warm water for 2-3 hours discard the water and use leached vegetable for cooking.
• Eat fruits and vegetables rich in vit c as they lead to decrease precipitation of calcium oxalate like orange juice, lemonade, and coconut water rich in electrolytes.
• Avoid carbonated drinks like coke, pepsi as they are rich in oxalates leading to stone formation.
• Eat fruits rich in vit B6 like banana.
• Avoid excessive consumption of vegetables like cauliflower, brinjal, tomato, dark leafy vegetables, and beat root.

Urinary Tract Infection

What is urinary tract infection [UTI]?

Urinary tract infection is the most common type of infection of the body second only to respiratory infection. This infection involves kidney, ureter, urethra or bladder.
Kidneys are pair of small organs that lie on either side of the spine above waist line. They have many important functions including removing waste and excess water from blood and eliminate them as urine.

Urine is normally sterile, usually free of bacteria, viruses and fungus. Infection happens when any micro-organism usually bacteria from the digestive tract enters into urethra and multiply there.

Most infections arise from one type of bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), which usually present in colon. Other than E. coli, Chlamydia and mycoplasma may also cause UTIs. Unlike E.coli, Chlamydia and mycoplasma may be sexually transmitted diseases.

These infections are more common in girls and women than in boys and men younger than 50 yrs of age as women have shorter urethra than a man does.

The symptoms of urinary tract infection depend according to the part of the Urinary tract where the particular bacteria multiply. Like, when the bacteria are affecting the urethra or bladder mucosa creating the condition known as urethritis or cystitis.

Causes of UTI:

• The most common reason for UTI is [E choli] Escherichia coli, as they are naturally present in your gut but when they enter your urinary system they cause an infection.
• Using dirty toilets.
• A pregnant woman is more susceptible to UTI.
• Not washing properly after using the toilets.
• If the person has enlarged prostate or kidney stone.
• If someone has suppressed immune system: diabetes or other disease that impair immune system has increased risk of UTI.
• Frequent use of catheter can also increase risk of getting UTI.
• If you are prone to get frequent UTI and do not drink enough water.
• A recent urinary surgery or examination of urinary tract with instruments may develop UTI.
• After menopause you are more vulnerable to UTI due to low estrogen level.

Symptoms of UTI:

• Severe burning and excruciating pain when you urinate.
• Burning remains for long after the urination.
• A frequent and constant urge to urinate; even though little comes out when try to urinate.
• Constant dull pain and pressure in lower abdomen and back.
• Bloody, cloudy or strange smelling urine.
• Fever or shaking chills if infection involves the kidney.
• General weakness, fatigue or nausea.

Dos and don’ts of UTI:

• Drink plenty of water and other fluids it will flush plenty of bacteria every time you urinate.
• Go for urination as soon as you feel the urge don’t hold it for long it may give time to bacteria growth.
• Keep yourself clean by washing your genitals and do wipe from front to back. [Vagina and anus] daily.
• Try to urinate before and after having intercourse to avoid bacterial infection.
• Always wear cotton undergarments as they are more airy and comfortable.
• Always wash your hands or use sanitizer after using public toilets.
• Load up on probiotics and yogurt is good natural source of probiotics.
• Cranberry juice is very effective for preventing and curing UTI.
• Avoid caffeinated drinks and alcohol.