Endocrinal Disorder

Endocrinal Disorder


What is hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism is a condition, where thyroid gland becomes overactive and produces too much of T3, T4 or both the hormones. Common symptoms include weight loss, irregular heartbeat, nervousness, excess sweating, and irritability.

Causes of hyperthyroidism:

• Graves’s disease is an autoimmune disorder. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It causes antibodies to stimulate the thyroid gland to secrete too much thyroid hormone. It is more common in women than in man.
• Excessive intake of thyroid hormones.
• Abnormal secretion of TSH.
• Thyroiditis.
• Excessive iodine intake.
• Benign tumors of thyroid or pituitary gland.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism:

High amount of T3 and T4 or both can cause an excessive high metabolic rate. Due to high metabolic rate, you may experience following symptoms:

• Unexplained weight loss despite increased appetite.
• Frequent bowel movements.
• Irregular menstrual periods.
• Rapid heart rate.
• Elevated blood pressure.
• Excessive sweating.
• Hand tremor.
• Low tolerance to heat.
• Irritability, anxiety and nervousness.
• An enlarged thyroid gland may appear as swelling at base of neck.
• Weakness.
• Increased appetite.
• Difficulty sleeping.
• Graves ophthalmology symptoms include protruding eyeballs or swollen eyeballs.
• Hair loss and thin hair.

Complications of hyperthyroidism:

Untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to life threatening problems which include:

• Irregular heart rhythm
• Congestive heart failure
• Bone fractures and osteoporosis
• Bulging ,swollen and red eyes
• Thyrotoxic state –this includes fever, rapid pulse and delirium

Dos and don’ts of hyperthyroidism

• Monitor your thyroid levels regularly.
• Do meditation, walk and yoga to relax you.
• Take flax seeds, walnuts, salmon fish, olive oil which is rich in omega 3 fatty acid which keeps your thyroid gland healthy.
• Take broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage regularly these vegetables can decrease your excess thyroid hormone.
• Take more of dairy products like milk, cheese, yogurt to strengthen your bones.


What is a thyroid gland?

Thyroid gland is an endocrine gland which is a butterfly shaped gland in front of your neck just above your collarbone. The thyroid gland secretes two hormones, – thyroxin [t4] and tri iodothyronine [t3] hormone. These hormones are necessary for all the cells in your body to work normally; in other word, it regulates the metabolism of your body cells.

Thyroid disorders are very common and tend to occur mainly in women. Although anybody of any age can be affected.


Hypothyroidism is characterized by abnormally low thyroid hormone production by the thyroid gland. There are many disorders those are associated with hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone affects growth, development and many cellular processes, inadequate hormone has widespread consequences for the body.

Causes of hypothyroidism:

1. Genetic reasons: You are prone to develop hypothyroidism, if you have close family member with an auto immune disease or suffering from some thyroid disorders.
2. Age: Growing age can be another reason to develop hypothyroidism.
3. Auto immune disease: The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimotos‘s thyroiditis. It is an inflammation of thyroid gland. This is an autoimmune disorder.
4. Treatment for hyperthyroidism: Any treatment is given to the people who have overactive thyroid gland.
5. Iodine deficiency: The thyroid gland needs iodine to produce thyroid hormone. As our body does not make it, we need to take it in our diet. Iodized table salt is rich in iodine.
6. Use of certain medication to treat heart problems, cancer, and psychiatric disease can affect thyroid hormone production.
7. Thyroid removal surgery can cause hypothyroidism.
8. Radiation therapy to neck area in certain cancers may damage thyroid cells, which is responsible for poor thyroid hormone production.
9. Pregnancy: Some women can develop hypothyroidism during or after pregnancy. This can lead to miscarriage or high blood pressure in early months of pregnancy if neglected.
10. Disorders of hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism:

Sign and symptoms of hypothyroidism may vary depending on severity of hormone deficiency.

• Fatigue
• Weight gain
• Excessive Sensitivity to cold
• Constipation
• Dry skin
• Muscle weakness, aches ,tenderness and stiffness
• Puffiness of face esp. in morning
• Hoarseness of voice
• Irregular menstrual periods.
• Hair fall and thinning of hair
• Mood swings or sadness.
• Drowsiness
• In children it can lead to poor growth and short stature
• Delayed puberty
• Poor mental development

Complications of hypothyroidism:

Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to goiter, tingling and numbness of limbs, increased cholesterol levels, heart failure, depression, myxedema, infertility, and birth defects.

Dos and don’ts of hypothyroidism:

• Do yoga, walking and moderate exercises.
• Do take fresh vegetables, fruits, nuts, dry fruits, beans, cereals, sea food, oatmeal, milk products, soya, and pulses regularly.
• Omega 3 fatty acid is very good for thyroid so try to take flax seeds, fish, walnuts, and beans in your diet.
• Limit use of cabbage, cauliflower, soybeans, and peanuts as they can interfere with the production of hormone.
• Repeat thyroid function test every 6 months.

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